In general, soil preparation for planting potatoes can be divided into two stages:
The preparation of the soil in autumn consists of deep plowing of the selected fields. In the spring, depending on the condition of the soil, additional cultivation is carried out – cultivation, milling.
The preparation of the areas starts with the cleaning of the plant residues and plowing at a depth of 30 – 35 cm. The soils with medium to heavy mechanical composition require the performance of quality deep plowing. Achieving this goal is related to the use of 3 – 5 body plows, the best option being the use of reversible plows. The optimal timeframes for autumn plowing are October-November. Where necessary, an deepening is made to improve the structure and composition of the soil, aeration processes and moisture content. Depth is usually at a depth of 45-60 cm. Deepening improves root growth and infiltration of water and nutrients. In this way, it helps reduce surface drainage and increases yields.
Depending on the condition of the soil, the pre-planting process of the potatoes involves cultivation or discovery at 15-18 cm depth. Since potatoes are grown under irrigation conditions, it is particularly important in the preparation of the areas to ensure the quality of the next working processes – planting, treatment with herbicides and plant protection products, digging, hilling, watering and harvesting.
Milling is the last stage before planting the crop. Through it the soil is brought to the necessary condition, which implies quality planting and carrying out the following agro-technical measures. Milling must be done immediately before planting. Depending on the location of the workpieces, the cutters are divided into two types – horizontal and vertical (rotary). Both types are suitable for potatoes, but with a view to achieving a better soil environment for the germination and development of potatoes, it is advisable to use rotary cutters.
To grow potatoes in order to meet the agro-technical deadlines, it is advisable to milling them with milling cutters with a working width of 3 – 4 m.